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Grading System


A, A-, B+, B, B-, C+, C, C-, D+, D, and S are passing grades for which credit is awarded; F and U indicate failure or unsatisfactory and carry no credit; I (Incomplete) indicates that the student has not completed all the work for a course; IF and IU indicate failure to finish an Incomplete; IP indicates work in progress; W indicates withdrawal without penalty; WF indicates withdrawal failing; and WU indicates unsatisfactory withdrawal.

Quality Points

For each semester hour of credit, quality points are computed as follows:

 A = 4.0A- = 3.7
B+ = 3.3B = 3.0B- = 2.7
C+ = 2.3C = 2.0C- = 1.7
D+ = 1.3D = 1.0 
 F = 0.0 


The grades of S, U, IU, and WU are given only for courses taken on a satisfactory/unsatisfactory basis. S carries academic credit but no quality points; U or IU carries neither academic credit nor quality points. Neither W, WU, S, nor U grades count in computing a student’s grade-point average. The grades of IF and WF are counted as F in computing a student’s grade-point average.

The course instructor determines the scale and criteria for grading in individual courses. Students should not assume that all professors use identical grading scales or standards. Instructors should communicate their standards and systems as clearly as possible in their course syllabi. Students should request clarification when necessary. The ultimate arbitrator of a grade is the relevant academic department or program.

When appropriate, faculty may correct a grade within one year of assigning it. After one year has passed, grade changes require the approval of the Senior Associate Dean for Undergraduate Education who may confer with the Committee on Academic Standards as needed.